“得英语者得考试”!几个小妙招帮你理清专升本英语的重点

发布时间:2018-11-26 15:26:14 编辑: 手机版

 专升本英语一直是多少考生的痛,语法好难,单词量不够,翻译困难,作文记不住模板。本期小编针对专升本英语语法定语从句为你支巧招↓↓↓

关于定语从句

→是指在复合句中用作定语的从句,定语从句一般都位于它所修饰的名词或代词之后;

→被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词称为先行词;

→引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词who, whom, whose, that, which等和关系副词when, where, why等;

→as也可以作为关系代词来引导定语从句;

→根据定语从句与先行词之间关系的紧密程度,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两种。

限制性定语从句

→限制性定语从句主要用来限制或修饰先行词,使先行词的所指明确化;

→若把该从句去掉会影响主句意义的完整性;

→限制性定语从句在口语中前后没有停顿,在书写时通常不用逗号。

1、由关系代词引导的限制性定语从句

→关系代词who, whom(代人), which(代物), that, whose(代人或代物)在定语从句中作主语,宾语,定语等;

→关系代词在定语从句中作动词宾语时一般可以省略;

→关系代词的人称和数要和先行词一致,它的格取决于它在从句中充当的成分。

eg:

The man who did the robbery has been caught. (who 在从句中作主语)

Then I telephoned the doctor (whom)Charles had recommended. (whom 在从句中作宾语,在口语中常用who代替,也可省略)

It is a question that/which needsvery careful consideration. (that/which在从句中作主语)

Edison is a great inventor whosefame is worldwide. (whose在从句中作定语,指人)

The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied.(whose在从句中作定语,指物)

He is not the man that he was.(that指人,在从句中作表语)

He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree.(谚语,that指人,在从句中作主语)

You can take any seat that is free. (that指物,在从句中作主语)

Who is the man that is waiting for you under the tree? (在疑问句中,当疑问词为who时,关系代词则要用that指人)

l 提示:当先行词为all, everything, anything等不定代词,或先行词之前有all, no,

any, little,only, very等限定词、序数词或形容词最高级等修饰时,其后的关系代词通常要用that。

【例句】

All (that) you have to do is to press the button. (此句中关系词必须用that,也可以省略)

That’s the very textbook that weused last term.

He is the bravest man that everlived. (此句中that不能换成which)

2、由关系副词引导的限制性定语从句

→关系副词when, where, why等在定语从句中作状语,分别表示时间,地点和原因;

→它们的先行词分别是表示时间,地点和原因的名词。

eg:

1.There are moments when I forget allabout it.

2.This is the factory where my fatherworks.

3.The reason why he came is not very convincing.

3、由关系代词as,but引导的限制性定语从句

→As用作关系代词引导定语从句时,可在从句中作主语,表语或宾语,先行词前一般有the same, such等词;

→But也可以用作关系代词引导定语从句,用于否定词语之后,在语义上相当于that/who…not。

eg:

This is the same bag as I lostyesterday. (as指物,在从句中作宾语)

Such people as you describe are rare nowadays. (as指人,在从句中作宾语)

Such people as knew Tom thought he was a talented youngman. (as指人,在从句中作主语)

There are very few but (= who don’t) admire his talents.

There is no man but (=who doesn’t)feels pity for starving children.

非限制性定语从句

→非限制性定语从句是对先行词进行附加说明,若把该词去掉,一般不会影响主句意义的完整性;

→除that之外,前面提到的关系代词和关系副词都可引导非限制性定语从句。

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考点

定语从句是考试中常考的内容,除了测试学生对定语从句基本用法的掌握外,还常出现下列两种特殊情况:

1)“介词+which/whom”引出的定语从句

“介词+which/whom”是一个介词短语,它在从句中担任介词短语通常担任的成分,即:状语,定语,补足语等,既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。

eg:

The games in which the young mancompeted were difficult.

I’ll never forget the day on which Ivisited the Great Wall for the first time.

The documents for which we weresearching have been recovered.

2)关系代词指代全句的定语从句

关系代词which 与as可以用来指代前面整个句子或部分句子的意思,此时which或as往往可以译为“这”,或“这一点”。两者的区别在于:as引出的定语从句可以位于句首,而which引出的定语从句只能用于句中。

eg:

She often changes her mind, whichmakes me angry.

He has to work on Sundays, which hedoesn’t like.

He opposed the plan, as could beexpected.

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